5 Areas of Learning

The lessons are organized into five learning areas. This allows the teacher to identify the learning to be carried out and to implement their interactions in the classroom. Each of these five areas is essential to the development of the child and must find its place in the organization of daily time. Insofar as every pedagogical situation remains, from the point of view of the child, a situation rich in multiple possibilities of interpretations and actions, it often raises for the teacher several areas of learning.

MOBILIZE LANGUAGE IN ALL ITS DIMENSIONS

The "Mobilizing language in all its dimensions" reaffirms the primordial role of language in nursery school as an essential condition for the success of all. The stimulation and structuring of oral language on the one hand, and progressive entry into the culture of writing on the other hand, are priorities of the nursery school and concern all areas.

The oral

From a very early age and in the course of a long process, children acquire language spontaneously through interactions with the adults.

The role of the teacher is therefore to accompany children in their first attempts by slowly repeating, often translating, carefully articulating and constantly correcting their production to improve their vocabulary and sentence structures. The teacher adapts to the diversity of French language skill of the children in the class, allowing each student to go progressively beyond the simple spontaneous and uncontrolled spoken word to fit into more and more organized conversations and to speak in a large group. The teacher also knows how to mobilize the attention of all children during activities slowly bringing them to understand more complex words and sentences.

The objective is to allow all students to comfortably speak, express an opinion or a need and formulate a question. Students learn to communicate with others in the language of the class. Between two and four years of age, children express themselves through non-verbal means and learn to speak. They take up formulations or fragments of the words addressed to them and thus work on the material that is the language they hear. After three-four years, they continue these tests and progresson the syntactic and lexical level. They produce more complete statements, organized coherently with each other, articulated in longer speeches, and more and more adapted to situations.

Autour de quatre ans, les enfants découvrent que les personnes, dont eux-mêmes, pensent et ressentent, et chacun différemment de l’autre. Ils commencent donc à agir volontairement sur autrui par le langage et à se représenter l’effet qu’une parole peut provoquer : ils peuvent alors comprendre qu’il faut expliquer et réexpliquer pour qu’un interlocuteur comprenne, et l’école doit les guider dans cette découverte. Ils commencent à poser de vraies questions, à saisir les plaisanteries et à en faire. Leurs progrès s’accompagnent d’un accroissement du vocabulaire et d’une organisation de plus en plus complexe des phrases. En fin d’école maternelle, l’enseignant peut donc avoir avec les enfants des conversations proches de celles qu’il a avec les adultes.

Throughout the nursery school, the teacher creates benevolent and safe conditionsso that all children (even those who do not speak or do not speak) take part in language situations more complex than those of ordinary life; it welcomes the "positive" errors that translate a mental reorganization of the language by enhancing them and proposing a reformulation. Thus, it helps to build equity between children by reducing language gaps .

Understanding and Learning

Teacher speeches are ways of understanding and learning for children. In understanding, they "take" what is within their grasp in what they hear, first in scenes referring to precise personal experiences, often charged with affectivity. They are encouraged to take a gradual interest in what they do not know, through the introduction of new notions, new cultural objects and even new ways of learning .

Reception moments where children work mentally without speaking are full-fledged language activities that the teacher must seek and encourage, because they allow the construction of cognitive tools: recognizing, comparing, categorizing, contrasting, constructing images linking events heard and / or seen in narratives or explanations, in structured learning moments, dealing with words referring to space, time, and so on. These activities that are invisible to any observer are crucial.

Exchange and reflect with others

Multiple language moments are numerous in kindergarten: problem-solving, collective decision-making, understanding of stories heard , etc. There is then argumentation, explanation, questions, interest in what others believe, think and know. The teacher then comments on the activity that takes place to highlight its importance and purpose.

The school regularly asks the students to evoke, that is to say to speak of what is not present (stories of past experiences, class projects ...). These evocative situations cause students to mobilize language in order to make themselves understood without further support; they offer them a means of training themselves to express themselves more and more explicitly. This language skill stems from a continuous development that begins early and will only take place around eight years. The role of the teacher is to induce retreat and reflection on the remarks made by each of them.

Begin to think about the language and acquire a phonological awareness

From an early age, children are interested in the language or languages they hear. They make spontaneous and unaware attempts to reproduce sounds, forms and structures in order to communicate with their surroundings. It is from three to four years of age that they can stand back and be aware of the efforts to master a language and to carry out these efforts intentionally. One can then focus their attention on the vocabulary, on the syntax and on the sound units of the French language, whose recognition will be indispensable to learn how to master the operation of writing French.

The acquisition and development of phonological awareness

Pour pouvoir lire et écrire, les enfants devront réaliser deux grandes acquisitions : identifier les unités sonores que l’on emploie lorsqu’on parle français (conscience phonologique) et comprendre que l’écriture du français est un code au moyen duquel on transcrit des sons (principe alphabétique).

When they learn to speak, the children reproduce the words they have heard and thus the sounds of the language they are spoken to. If they happen to play with sounds, it happens randomly. In kindergarten, they learn to manipulate sounds voluntarily , to identify them in the ear so to dissociate them from other sounds, to identify similarities and differences. In order to be interested in syllables and phonemes, children must be detached from the meaning of words.

The most readable unit is the syllable. Once the children are able to identify syllables common to several words , to isolate them, they can then endeavor to locate smaller elements that are part of the composition of the syllables. Because vowel sounds are easier to perceive than consonant sounds and they sometimes constitute syllables, it is through them that it is necessary to start without wanting to identify all those that exist in French and without excluding to make perceive some consonant sounds among the most accessible.

In order to develop phonological awareness , the teacher habituates children to voluntarily decomposing what they hear in oral syllables : by using a sound sequence, by "cutting" orally out words known in syllables, identifying an identical syllable in words with two syllables, then by interchanging syllables, always without material support, neither written nor imagery. These phonescan be practiced in large groups, but the teacher favors small groups for children who participate little or with difficulty in large groups. In the course of the large section, he devotes short sessions regularly to these games, especially with children for whom he does not notice any evolution in the essays of writing. For those who are able to do so, similar activities can be initiated on vowel sounds - especially those that make up a syllable in the words frequented - and some sounds-consonants. These games and activities structured on the sound constituents of the language occupy only a part of the language activities.

Awakening to linguistic diversity

From the average section, they will discover the existence of languages, sometimes very different from those they know . In playful situations (games, nursery rhymes ...) or to which they can give meaning (DVD of known histories for example), they realize that communication can pass through languages other than French : for example regional languages, foreign languages and French sign language (LSF). The ambitions are modest, but the tests that the children have to make, especially to repeat certain elements, must be conducted with a certain rigor.


Writing

Objectives and elements of progressivity

It is up to the nursery school to give everyone a common culture of writing . The children are led to understand better and better the writings within their reach, to discover the nature and the linguistic function of these plots made by someone for someone, to start participating in the production of written texts of which they explore the peculiarities. At the end of the cycle, the children can show all these achievements in their first autonomous writings. These will be groping patterns on which the Cycle 2 teachers will rely.

Listening and Writing

By preparing children for the first mastered uses of writing in cycle 2, the nursery school occupies a privileged place to offer them a frequentation of the language of writing, very different from oral communication. The challenge is to familiarize them with the reception of written language in order to understand its content. The teacher takes charge of the reading, directs and animates the exchanges that follow the listening. Progressivity lies essentially in the choice of texts that are increasingly long and distant from the oral; if the literature of youth has a large place, the documentary texts are not neglected.

Discover the function of writing

The objective is to enable children to understand that the written signs they perceive are of the language: in reception, the writing gives access to the speech of someoneand, in production, it allows to address someone one who is absent or to keep for himself a trace of what can not be forgotten. Writing transmits, gives or recalls information and makes people imagine: it has cognitive implications on the reader. In kindergarten, children discover it using a variety of materials (books, posters, letters, e-mail or telephone messages, labels, etc.) in relation to situations or projects that make them necessary; they make it a still more precise experience when they are spectators of an addressed writing and when they themselves observe the effects produced by the writings on those who receive them.

Begin writing and discovering how it works

It is the teacher who judges when children are willing to take charge of some of the activities that adults do with writing. And since there is no pre-reading in kindergarten, this partial care is done in production and largely with the help of an adult. Every production of writings requires different stages and hence the length of time before it ends; the phase of the oral preparation of the message is fundamental, in particular because it allows the awareness of the necessary transformations of an oral statement into sentences to be written. The adult dictation technique concerns one of these steps, which is the actual writing. These early experiences of productions generate an awareness of the power of writing.

Discover the alphabetical principle

One of the conditions for learning to read and write is to have discovered the alphabetical principle that the written code largely, not directly the meaning, but the oral (sound) of what is said . During the three years of kindergarten, children will discover this principle (ie understand the relationship between letters and sounds) and begin to implement it. What is aimed at kindergarten is the discovery of this principle and not the systematic learning of relations between oral and written forms.

The progressivity of teaching in kindergarten requires beginning with writing. Children need to understand how a speech is translated into writing , hence the importance of the relationship that goes from oral to written. The reverse path, from written to oral, will be practiced later when children begin to learn to read. This writing activity can only be carried out if, at the same time, the child develops a phonological awareness by becoming able to identify the sound units of the language.

The discovery of the alphabetical principle makes possible the first autonomous writings at the end of kindergarten because it is associated with complex knowledge and new know-how :

  • the discovery of the function of writing and productions with the help of an adult;
  • the manipulation of non-significant sound units of the language that produces skills that are used when the children are trying to write;
  • at the same time, starting from the average section, the initiation to the tracings of the writing;
  • the discovery of the correspondences between the three scripts (cursive, script, capitals) which gives the children a palette of possibilities, in handwriting and on word processing.

Autonomous writing is the culmination of these different learning and discoveries.

Start writing on your own

A necessary training before practicing cursive writing: graphical exercises

It takes several years for children to acquire the many skills needed for writing: use their eyes to control their hand, use the four articulations used to hold and guide the writing instrument (shoulder, elbow, wrist , fingers), to control the traces, and especially to draw voluntarily abstract signs of which they understand that they are not drawings but letters, that is to say elements of a code that transcribes sounds . The graphic exercises , which allow you to practice the motor gestures, and the writing proper are two different things. The teacher ensures that they are not confused.

In a small section, graphic exercises, by habituating the children to control and guide their gestures by the gaze, lead them to master the motor gestures that will be mobilized in the drawing and the cursive writing, to take reference points in the space of leaf. On average and large sections, they regularly practice fine motor skills that prepare specifically for writing . They also train in the gestures proper to writing and they learn to adopt a comfortable posture, to hold in a suitable way the writing instrument, to manage graphic space (to go from left to right, to keep an alignment ... ). Teacher varies models and gives time to demonstrations which allow learning of their reproduction.

Writing in capitals, which is easier to draw graphically, is not systematically taught; when it is practiced by the children, the teacher ensures that the order of letters is respected and highlights the consequences of respecting this orderon what can then be read. The cursive writing requires a training to learn how to draw each letter and the sequence of several letters, while wisely raising the writing instrument. This training can take place only if the children have acquired a certain motor maturity: if it can with some be begun in average section, it is in large section that it has the most naturally its place, and often in the second part d 'year. It should be continued in a very systematic way during the preparatory course. Regular writing of the first name provides an opportunity to practice it, with children having less memory to provide and then concentrating on the quality of the path.

À partir de la moyenne section, et régulièrement en grande section, l’enseignant explique la correspondance des trois écritures (cursive, script, capitales). Les enfants s’exercent à des transcriptions de mots, phrases, courts textes connus, à leur saisie sur ordinateur. Travaillant alors en binôme, ils apprennent nombre de relations entre l’oral et l’écrit : un enfant nomme les lettres et montre, le second cherche sur le clavier, ils vérifient ensemble sur l’écran, puis sur la version imprimée.

The objective is to construct the symbolic value of letters , the teacher is careful not to isolate the three components of writing : the semantic component (the meaning of what is written), the symbolic component (alphabetic code) and the motor component (graphic dexterity).

Words writing tests

Publicly valuing the first traces of the little ones who say they have written is to put the whole class on the path of the symbolic. In the case of lines, various signs or pseudo-letters, the teacher specifies that he can not yet read. From the average section, the teacher writesof simple words, for example the name of a character in a story. The goal is for the children to seize the contributions of the teacher who has written in front of them, or documents displayed in the class that have been observed together and commented on. Their plots show the teacher what the children understood from writing. Once the layouts are made, the teacher reads, or noises or says he can not yet read. He discusses with the child, explains himself the processes used and writes the canonical form by matching sound units and graphemes. Activity is more frequent in large sections.

The teacher does not let the children believe that their productions are correct and he does not look for a standard orthographic result: he values the essays and ends with his adult writing under the student's essay.

The first autonomous productions of writings

When children understand that writing is a code for delivering messages, they can be encouraged to produce written messages. In large sections, children begin to have the resources to write, and the teacher encourages themto do or valorates spontaneous tests. The teacher encourages them to write using all that is within their reach. Once they know exactly what they want to write, children can search in known texts, use the alphabetical principle, ask for help. The more they write, the more they want to write. The teacher accepts that they combine writing in capitals to solve phonographic problems and cursive writing. When they no longer content themselves with recopying words they know but want to write new words, they resort to different strategies, combining them or not: they can recopy pieces taken from other words, draw letters whose sound is found in the word to be written (for example, vowels), assign letters to the sound value of their name (use the letter K to transcribe the sound / ca /). The separation between words remains a difficult problem to solve until CE1.

Early writing tests allow the teacher to see that children begin to understand the function and functioning of writing, even if only gradually they will learn the rules. He comments these texts with their authors (what they meant, what they wrote, which shows that they already have knowledge about the written texts), then he writes in French written normative emphasizing the differences. It also gives children the means to train, such as copying in a specially designed writing corner (tools, white and rolled sheets, computer and printer, digital tablet and stylus, graphic correspondence tables, known texts). An individual collection of these first writings can become a reference file for each student, to bring for their return to the CP.


What is expected of children at the end of Kindergarten

  • Communicate with adults and with other children through language, making themselves understood.
  • Speaking in a syntactically correct and precise language. Reformulate to be better understood.
  • Practice various uses of oral language: to tell, to describe, to evoke, to explain, to question, to propose solutions, to discuss a point of view.
  • Saying from memory and expressively several rhymes and poems.
  • Understanding texts written with no help other than the language heard.
  • Show curiosity about writing. Be able to repeat the words of a sentence written after reading by the adult, the words of the known title of a book or a text.
  • Participate verbally in the production of a writing. Know that we do not write as we speak.
  • Identify regularities in the oral language in French (possibly in another language).
  • Handling syllables.
  • Discriminating sounds (syllables, sounds-vowels, some consonant sounds out of occlusive consonants).
  • Recognize the letters of the alphabet and know the correspondences between the three ways of writing them: cursive, script, capitals of printing. Copy using a keyboard.
  • Write his first name in cursive writing, without model.
  • Write only a word using letters or groups of letters borrowed from known words.

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

The practice of physical and artistic activities contributes to the motor, sensory, emotional, intellectual and relational development of children . These activities mobilize, stimulate, enrich the imagination and are the occasion to experience emotions, new sensations. They allow children to explore their physical possibilities, expand and refine their motor skills, and master new balances . They help them to construct their laterality, the oriented image of their own body and to better situate themselves in space and in time.

These bodily experiences also aim to develop cooperation, to build constructive relationships with each other , respecting differences, and thus contribute to socialization. The participation of all children in all the physical activities proposed, the organization and the procedures implemented, seek to combat stereotypes and contribute to the construction of equality between girls and boys. Physical activities participate in health education by leading all children, regardless of their "performance", to experience the pleasure of movement and effort, to better know their body to respect it.

Objectives and elements of progressivity

On arrival at kindergarten, all children are not at the same level of motor development. They did not realize the same bodily experiences and these took on different meanings depending on the contexts in which they took place. The choice of varied physical activities , always taking forms adapted to the age of the children, belongs to the teacher, within the framework of a class and cycle program in order to achieve the four characteristic objectives of this domain. 'learning. The need for movement of children is real. It is therefore imperative to organize a daily session (from thirty to forty-five minutes approximately, depending on the nature of the activities, the organization chosen, the intensity of the actions carried out, the time of the year, the behaviors of the children ... ). These sessions should be organized in cycles of sufficient duration so that the children have a time that guarantees a real exploration and allows the construction of significant motor conquests .

Acting in space, time and objects

Gradually, because he is asked by the teacher to see the results of his actions, the child takes pleasure in investing more time in the learning situations that are proposed to him. He discovers the possibility of chaining motor behaviors to ensure continuity of action (take a ball, then run to cross an obstacle, then aim a target to make it fall, then return to the starting point to take a new shot ... ). It learns to provide long-term efforts, to seek to travel more distance in a given time ("materialized" by an hourglass, a recorded song ...).

By acting on and with objects of different sizes, shapes or weights (balls, balloons, bags of seeds, rings ...), the child experiments the properties, discovers possible uses (to launch, to catch, to make roll ...) , tries to reproduce an effect which he has obtained by chance from trial and error. It progresses in the perception and anticipation of the trajectory of an object in space which, even after the age of five, is still difficult.

Adapt its balances and movements to various environments or constraints

Some of the younger children need time to conquer new spaces or engage in unfamiliar environments. Others, on the contrary, invest from the outset new proposals without apprehension but also without awareness of the potential risks. In all cases, the teacher leads the children to discover their possibilities by proposing situations that allow them to explore and extend their limits. It invites them to put into play unusual driving behavior (climbing, hanging, crawling ...), to develop new equilibriums (to reverse, to roll, to be floated ...), to discover spaces unknown or characterized by their uncertainty(swimming pool, ice rink, park, forest ...). For children around the age of four, the teacher enriches these experiments using equipments that require balance (skates, stilts ...), allowing new modes of travel (tricycles, draisiennes, bicycles, scooters ...). It draws children's attention to their own safety and that of others, in educational situations where the objective level of risk is controlled by the adult.

Communicating with others through expressive or artistic actions

The situations offered to the child enable him to discover and affirm his own possibilities of improvisation, invention and creation using his body. The teacher uses a variety of sound media (music, sound effects, sound landscapes ...) or, on the contrary, develops listening to oneself and others through silence. It provides children with objects initiating or extending the movement (veils, feathers, leaves ...), especially for the youngest of them. It proposes adaptations of space adapted, real or fictitious, incite to new experiments. It leads to enroll in a group achievement. The round trip between the roles of actors and spectators allows the biggest to better understand the different dimensions of the activity, the issues involved and the sense of progress. The child thus participates in a collective project which can be brought to the attention of other spectators, outside the class group.

Collaborate, cooperate, oppose

For the young child, the school is most often the place of a first discovery of motor games lived collectively. The function of this collective, the appropriation of different modes of organization, the sharing of the material and the understanding of the roles require learning. The common rules (delimitations of space, goal of the game, rights and prohibitions ...) are one of the conditions of pleasure to play, with respect for others.

For the youngest, the attainment of a common goal is first and foremost achieved by combining actions carried out in parallel, without real coordination. It is a question, in the simplest forms of play, of understanding and appropriating a single role . The exercise of different roles institutes the first collaborations (emptying an area of the objects that are there, collaborating in order to exchange them, to transport them, to put them in another camp ...). Then there are situations in which there is a real antagonism of intentions (stealing objects, pursuing players to catch them, escaping to avoid them ...) or reversibility of the players' status (if the cat touches the mouse, it becomes a cat in its place ...).

Other play situations allow the older ones to come into contact with the body of the other, to learn to respect it and to explore actions in relation to specific intentions of cooperation or opposition (grasping, raising, push, pull, immobilize, etc.). Whether in these two games or in group games, all can usefully take advantage of various social roles: referee, observer, responsible for the brand or the duration of the game.


What is expected at the end of Maternelle

  • Running, jumping, throwing in different ways, in spaces and with various materials, for a specific purpose.
  • Adjust and chain his actions and movements according to obstacles to be crossed or the trajectory of objects on which to act.
  • Move with ease in a variety of natural or managed environments.
  • Build and maintain a sequence of actions and movements, in relation with other partners, with or without music support.
  • Coordinate his actions and his movements with those of others, during rounds and games sung.
  • Cooperate, exercise different complementary roles, oppose each other, develop strategies to achieve a common goal or effect.

ARTISTIC ACTIVITIES

The practice of physical and artistic activities contributes to the motor, sensory, emotional, intellectual and relational development of children . These activities mobilize, stimulate, enrich the imagination and are the occasion to experience emotions, new sensations. They allow children to explore their physical possibilities, expand and refine their motor skills, and master new balances . They help them to construct their laterality, the oriented image of their own body and to better situate themselves in space and in time.

These bodily experiences also aim to develop cooperation, to build constructive relationships with each other , respecting differences, and thus contribute to socialization. The participation of all children in all the physical activities proposed, the organization and the procedures implemented, seek to combat stereotypes and contribute to the construction of equality between girls and boys. Physical activities participate in health education by leading all children, regardless of their "performance", to experience the pleasure of movement and effort, to better know their body to respect it.

Objectives and elements of progressivity

On arrival at kindergarten, all children are not at the same level of motor development. They did not realize the same bodily experiences and these took on different meanings depending on the contexts in which they took place. The choice of varied physical activities , always taking forms adapted to the age of the children, belongs to the teacher, within the framework of a class and cycle program in order to achieve the four characteristic objectives of this domain. 'learning. The need for movement of children is real. It is therefore imperative to organize a daily session (from thirty to forty-five minutes approximately, depending on the nature of the activities, the organization chosen, the intensity of the actions carried out, the time of the year, the behaviors of the children ... ). These sessions should be organized in cycles of sufficient duration so that the children have a time that guarantees a real exploration and allows the construction of significant motor conquests .

Acting in space, time and objects

Gradually, because he is asked by the teacher to see the results of his actions, the child takes pleasure in investing more time in the learning situations that are proposed to him. He discovers the possibility of chaining motor behaviors to ensure continuity of action (take a ball, then run to cross an obstacle, then aim a target to make it fall, then return to the starting point to take a new shot ... ). It learns to provide long-term efforts, to seek to travel more distance in a given time ("materialized" by an hourglass, a recorded song ...).

By acting on and with objects of different sizes, shapes or weights (balls, balloons, bags of seeds, rings ...), the child experiments the properties, discovers possible uses (to launch, to catch, to make roll ...) , tries to reproduce an effect which he has obtained by chance from trial and error. It progresses in the perception and anticipation of the trajectory of an object in space which, even after the age of five, is still difficult.

Adapt its balances and movements to various environments or constraints

Some of the younger children need time to conquer new spaces or engage in unfamiliar environments. Others, on the contrary, invest from the outset new proposals without apprehension but also without awareness of the potential risks. In all cases, the teacher leads the children to discover their possibilities by proposing situations that allow them to explore and extend their limits. It invites them to put into play unusual driving behavior (climbing, hanging, crawling ...), to develop new equilibriums (to reverse, to roll, to be floated ...), to discover spaces unknown or characterized by their uncertainty(swimming pool, ice rink, park, forest ...). For children around the age of four, the teacher enriches these experiments using equipments that require balance (skates, stilts ...), allowing new modes of travel (tricycles, draisiennes, bicycles, scooters ...). It draws children's attention to their own safety and that of others, in educational situations where the objective level of risk is controlled by the adult.

Communicating with others through expressive or artistic actions

The situations offered to the child enable him to discover and affirm his own possibilities of improvisation, invention and creation using his body. The teacher uses a variety of sound media (music, sound effects, sound landscapes ...) or, on the contrary, develops listening to oneself and others through silence. It provides children with objects initiating or extending the movement (veils, feathers, leaves ...), especially for the youngest of them. It proposes adaptations of space adapted, real or fictitious, incite to new experiments. It leads to enroll in a group achievement. The round trip between the roles of actors and spectators allows the biggest to better understand the different dimensions of the activity, the issues involved and the sense of progress. The child thus participates in a collective project which can be brought to the attention of other spectators, outside the class group.

Collaborate, cooperate, oppose

For the young child, the school is most often the place of a first discovery of motor games lived collectively. The function of this collective, the appropriation of different modes of organization, the sharing of the material and the understanding of the roles require learning. The common rules (delimitations of space, goal of the game, rights and prohibitions ...) are one of the conditions of pleasure to play, with respect for others.

For the youngest, the attainment of a common goal is first and foremost achieved by combining actions carried out in parallel, without real coordination. It is a question, in the simplest forms of play, of understanding and appropriating a single role . The exercise of different roles institutes the first collaborations (emptying an area of the objects that are there, collaborating in order to exchange them, to transport them, to put them in another camp ...). Then there are situations in which there is a real antagonism of intentions (stealing objects, pursuing players to catch them, escaping to avoid them ...) or reversibility of the players' status (if the cat touches the mouse, it becomes a cat in its place ...).

Other play situations allow the older ones to come into contact with the body of the other, to learn to respect it and to explore actions in relation to specific intentions of cooperation or opposition (grasping, raising, push, pull, immobilize, etc.). Whether in these two games or in group games, all can usefully take advantage of various social roles: referee, observer, responsible for the brand or the duration of the game.

What is expected at the end of Maternelle

  • Running, jumping, throwing in different ways, in spaces and with various materials, for a specific purpose.
  • Adjust and chain his actions and movements according to obstacles to be crossed or the trajectory of objects on which to act.
  • Move with ease in a variety of natural or managed environments.
  • Build and maintain a sequence of actions and movements, in relation with other partners, with or without music support.
  • Coordinate his actions and his movements with those of others, during rounds and games sung.
  • Cooperate, exercise different complementary roles, oppose each other, develop strategies to achieve a common goal or effect.

STRUCTURING YOUR THINKING

Discovering numbers and their uses

Since their birth, children have an intuition of magnitude that allows them to compare and approximate lengths (sizes), volumes, but also collections of miscellaneous objects ("there are many" " not a lot "…). When they arrive at kindergarten, they discriminate small quantities, one, two and three, especially when they form culturally known configurations (dominoes, dice). Finally, if they know how to state the beginnings of the numerical sequence, this recitation does not translate a true understanding of quantities and numbers.

The nursery school should lead gradually to understand that numbers allow both to express quantities (cardinal use) and to express a rank or position in a list (ordinal use). This learning takes time and confrontation with many situations involving pre-numerical and then numerical activities.

Objectives and elements of progressivity

The construction of number is based on the notion of quantity, its oral and written codification , the acquisition of the oral sequence of numbers and the use of enumeration . In the case of young children, such learning is developed in parallel before it can be coordinated: the child can, for example, know how to recite the digital nursery rhyme without knowing how to use it to count a collection.

In the learning of numbers in kindergarten, the number should be constructed to express the quantities , to stabilize the knowledge of small numbers and to use the number as memory of the position . The teacher encourages the very progressive development of each of these dimensions to contribute to the construction of the notion of number. This construction can not be confused with that of numeration and operations which relate to the learning of the elementary school.

Build number to express quantities

Understanding the notion of quantity implies that the child must conceive that quantity is not the characteristic of an object but of a collection of objects (the child must also understand that the number is used to memorize the quantity). The child first uses a perceptual and global estimate (more, less, the same, much, not much). Gradually, it switches from the appearance of the collections to the taking into account of the quantities. The comparison of the collections and the production of a collection of the same cardinal as another are essential activities for the learning of the number. The number as a quantity measuring tool is stabilized when the child can associate it with a collection, regardless of the nature, size of the elements and the space occupied: five allows indiscriminately to designate five ants, five cubes or five elephants.

The three years of kindergarten are necessary and sometimes not sufficient to stabilize this knowledge by ensuring that the numbers worked are compounded and decomposed. The control of the decomposition of numbers is a necessary condition for the construction of the number .

Stabilize knowledge of small numbers

Au cycle 1, la construction des quantités jusqu’à dix est essentielle. Cela n’exclut pas le travail de comparaison sur de grandes collections. La stabilisation de la notion de quantité, par exemple trois, est la capacité à donner, montrer, évaluer ou prendre un, deux ou trois et à composer et décomposer deux et trois. Entre deux et quatre ans, stabiliser la connaissance des petits nombres (jusqu’à cinq) demande des activités nombreuses et variées portant sur la décomposition et recomposition des petites quantités (trois c’est deux et encore un ; un et encore deux ; quatre c’est deux et encore deux ; trois et encore un ; un et encore trois), la reconnaissance et l’observation des constellations du dé, la reconnaissance et l’expression d’une quantité avec les doigts de la main, the term-to-term correspondence with a known cardinal collection.

The iteration of unity (three is two and still one) is built up gradually, and for each number. After four years, the activities of decomposition and recomposition are carried out on quantities up to ten.

Use the number to designate a row, position

The number also keeps the memory of the rank of an item in an organized collection. To remember the rank and position of the objects (third pearl, fifth hoop), children must define a sense of reading, a sense of path , that is, give an order. This use of number is based on oral knowledge of the numerical nursery rhyme and writing on that of the encrypted writing .

Building first knowledge and know-how with rigor

Acquiring the Oral Suite of Number-words

For the word sequence to be available as a resource to count, it must be stable, ordered, segmented and sufficiently long. It must be worked for itself and constituted a reservoir of ordered words . Knowledge of the oral sequence of number names does not constitute learning but contributes to it.

Before four years, the first elements of the digital suite can be set up to five or six and then gradually extended to thirty at the end of large section. The teaching of numerical rhymes favors in particular the memorization of the sequence of numbers, the segmentation of number words into linguistic units; these achievements make it possible to identify the numbers that are before and after, the next and the last of a number, to become aware of the link between the increase or decrease of an element of a collection.

Write numbers with numbers

At the same time, children encounter written numbers, especially in occasional activities of classroom life, in games and through the first use of the calendar. The first writings of the numbers must not be introduced early but gradually, from the needs of communication in the resolution of concrete situations. The learning of the plotting of the figures is done with the same rigor as that of the letters. The progression of the capacity of reading and writing of numbers is organized on the cycle, especially from four years. Institutional written code is the ultimate stage of learning that continues in Cycle 2.

Count

Counting activities should avoid counting and numbering, and when collecting the collection, show that each number name identifies the quantity that has just been formed (the child must understand that showing three fingers, is not the same as showing the third finger of the hand). Subsequently, beyond five, the same attention must be paid to the progressive elaboration of quantities and their relations to numbers under the different codes . Children must understand that any quantity is obtained by adding one to the previous quantity (or removing one to the higher quantity) and that its denomination is obtained by advancing from one in the sequence of the number names or their writing with numbers.

To count a collection of objects, the child must be able to synchronize the recitation of the sequence of the number words with the pointing of the objects to be counted . This capacity must be taught in different ways by varying the nature of the collections and their spatial organization, as the strategies are not the same depending on whether the objects are movable or not (put in a box, pose on another table), and according to their arrangement (collection organized in space or not, organized collection-aligned on a sheet or not).


What is expected of children at the end of Maternell

Using numbers

  • Evaluate and compare collections of objects with numerical or non-numerical procedures.
  • Make a collection whose cardinal is given. Use counting to compare two quantities, to make a collection of a given size or to make a collection of quantities equal to the proposed collection.
  • Use the number to express the position of an object or person in a game, in an organized situation, in a rank, or to compare positions.
  • Mobilize analog, verbal or written symbols, conventional or unconventional, to communicate oral and written information about a quantity.

Studying numbers

  • To have understood that the cardinal does not change if we modify the spatial arrangement or the nature of the elements.
  • Have understood that any number is obtained by adding one to the previous number and that this corresponds to the addition of a unit to the previous quantity.
  • Quantify collections to at least ten; composing them and decomposing them by actual and then mental manipulations. To say how much to add or to remove to obtain quantities not exceeding ten.
  • Talk about numbers using their decomposition.
  • Say the sequence of numbers up to thirty. Read numbers written in numbers up to ten.

ExplorING shapes, sizes, organized suites

Very early, young children intuitively discern forms (square, triangle ...) and dimensions (length, capacity, mass, area ...). In kindergarten, they build knowledge and landmarks on some shapes and sizes. The approach of plane shapes, objects of space, magnitudes, is done by the manipulation and coordination of actions on objects . This approach is supported by language: it allows to describe these objectsand actions and promotes the identification of first descriptive characteristics . This knowledge, which will remain limited, is the first approach to geometry and measurement that will be taught in cycles 2 and 3.


EXPLORING THE WORLD

Finding yourself in time and space

From birth, through their exploratory activities, children intuitively perceive certain spatial and temporal dimensions of their immediate environment. These perceptions enable them to acquire, within their environments, a first set of benchmarks, to develop expectations and memories of a recent past. However, this knowledge remains implicit and limited. One of the aims of the nursery school is precisely to gradually lead them to consider time and space as relatively independent dimensions of current activities and to start treating them as such. It also seeks to lead them gradually to overcome their own point of view and to adopt that of others.

The weather

The nursery school aims at the construction of temporal references and the awareness of durations : short time (that of an activity with its before and after, day) and long time (succession of days in the week and the month, succession of seasons ). The apprehension of very long time (historical time) is more difficult especially with regard to the distinction between close past and distant past.

Stabilize the first time markers

For the youngest, the first temporal reference points are associated with the recurrent activities of everyday life, hence the importance of a regular organization and rituals that mark the passages from one moment to another. These markers allow the teacher to "anchor" for children the first stable elements of a summary chronology and to offer them a first work of evocation and anticipation based on events close to the present moment.

Introducing social benchmarks

From the average section, social benchmarks are introduced and used daily by the children to determine the days of the week, to specify the events of school life. The teacher gradually leads the children to connect the different tracking systems, including the times of the day and the hours to objectify the durations and benchmarks used by the adult (in five minutes, in an hour).

Consolidating the notion of chronology

In the middle section, the teacher proposes a work related to the construction of the chronology covering wider periods, in particular the week. It relies on real-life events, the progress of which is perceptible by the children and for which stages can be distinguished, ordered, reconstituted, completed. The activities carried out in the classroom favor the acquisition of temporal marks in the language, in particular to situate a subject in relation to the moment of speech (yesterday, today, now, tomorrow, later ...), or the use of forms of the corresponding verbs. The teacher creates the conditions for the temporal relations of succession, anticipation, posteriority, simultaneity to be translated by the appropriate verbal formulations (before, after, during, long before,

In large sections, events chosen according to class projects (the disappearance of dinosaurs, the appearance of writing ...) or elements of the nearby architectural heritage, the lives of parents and grandparents, can be exploited to put in order a few common landmarks but without concern for taking into account the measure of time.

Raising awareness of the concept of

The notion of duration begins to take place around four years in a subjective way. Using tools and devices that provide a more objective assessment, the teacher brings the children not to measure time strictly speaking, but to materialize it by visualizing its flow. Thus, hourglasses, recordings of a nursery rhyme or a song can allow a first apprehension of a given stable duration or the comparison with another.

Space

Experiencing space

Space experience involves the acquisition of knowledge related to the movement, distances and spatial benchmarks developed by children in the course of their activities. The teacher creates the conditions for an accumulation of experiments with spatial landmarks, allowing children to explore, navigate, observe the positions of fixed or mobile elements, movements of their peers, to progressively anticipate their own itineraries through language exchanges. The teacher thus favors the organization of benchmarks that each one develops, through action and language, from his own body in order to construct an oriented image progressively.

Representing space

Through the use and production of various representations (photos, models, drawings, plans ...) and also by language exchanges with their comrades and adults, children learn to restore their journeys and to make them from oral instructions included and stored. They then establish the relations between their displacements and the representations of them. The transition to plane representations through drawing leads them to begin to intuitively relate three-dimensional perceptions and two-dimensional encodings using certain geometric shapes (rectangles, squares, triangles, circles). These connections will be studied more precisely in the elementary school, but they can already be used to code displacements or spatial representations.

Discover different environments

The teacher leads the children to observe less familiar environments (countryside, city, sea, mountain ...) from observation of the nearby environment (class, school, neighborhood ...). The observation of human constructions (houses, shops, monuments, roads, bridges ...) is on the same path. For the older ones, a first approach to landscape as a medium marked by human activity becomes possible. These situations are opportunities for questioning, producing images (the digital camera is a useful auxiliary), searching for information, mediation by the master, documentaries, websites. This exploration of the environments also allows a concrete initiation to a responsible attitude (respect for places, life,

Based on experiences in and outside school by the children of the classroom and the opportunities it generates, the teacher also promotes a first discovery of countries and cultures to open them to the diversity of world. This discovery can be made in connection with an initial awareness of the plurality of languages.


What is expected at the end of Maternelle

  • Locate events in relation to each other and identify them in the day, week, month or season.
  • To order a sequence of photographs or images, in order to account for a lived situation or a fictional narrative, by marking exactly succession and simultaneity.
  • Use appropriate time markers (then, during, before, after ...) in narratives, descriptions or explanations.
  • Locate objects with respect to oneself, with respect to reference objects.
  • Relate to others, relative to landmarks.
  • In a well-known environment, make a journey, a path from its representation (drawing or coding).
  • Elaborate first tests of plane representation, communicable (construction of a common code).
  • Orient and use a sheet of paper, book or other writing material correctly, according to instructions, purpose or specific project.
  • Use appropriate spatial markers (front, back, right, left, top, bottom ...) in narratives, descriptions or explanations.

Explore the world of life, objects and matter

When they enter nursery school, children already have representations that allow them to take benchmarks in their daily lives. To help them discover, organize and understand the world around them, the teacher proposes activities that lead children to observe, formulate more rational questions, build relationships between the observed phenomena, predict consequences, identify possible characteristics to be categorized. Children begin to understand what distinguishes the living from the non-living; they manipulate, manufacture to become familiar with objects and matter.

Objectives and elements of progressivity

Discovering the living world

The teacher leads the children to observe the different manifestations of animal and plant life. They discover the cycle of birth, growth, reproduction, aging and death by providing the necessary care for livestock and plantations in the classroom. They identify, name or group animals according to their characteristics (hair, feathers, scales ...), their modes of movement (walking, crawling, flight, swimming ...), their living environments, etc.

Through physical activities at school, children learn to know and master their bodies. They understand that it is up to them to take care of themselves in order to maintain their fitness and promote their well-being. They learn to identify, name and name the different parts of the body. This health education aims at the acquisition of first knowledge and know-how related to a healthy lifestyle. It incorporates a first approach to nutritional issues that can be linked to an education to taste.

Children enrich and develop their sensory skills, use them to distinguish different realities according to their olfactory, taste, tactile, auditory and visual characteristics. Among the greatest, it is a matter of comparing, classifying or ordering these realities, describing them through language, and categorizing them.

Finally, the questions of the protection of the living and its environment are approached in the context of a discovery of different environments, by a concrete initiation to a responsible attitude.

Explore the material

A first apprehension of the concept of matter is favored by the direct action on the materials from the small section. Children regularly perform a variety of actions (transfer, knead, mix, transport, shape, cut, cut, chop, assemble, transform). Throughout the cycle, they discover the effects of their actions and use some natural materials or materials (water, wood, earth, sand, air ...) or made by man (paper, cardboard, semolina, fabric, etc.).

Activities that lead to mixtures, dissolutions, mechanical transformations or heat or cold effects gradually allow to approach some properties of these materials and materials, some aspects of their possible transformations. They are the occasion of discussions between children and with the teacher, and allow to classify, designate and define their qualities by acquiring the appropriate vocabulary.

Use, manufacture, manipulate objects

The use of instruments, various objects, tools leads children to develop a series of skills, to manipulate and to discover their uses. From small to large sections, children learn to connect an action or the choice of a tool to the effect they want to get: paste, put on, assemble, operate, button, cut, balance, hold a writer tool , fold, use a template, manipulate a computer mouse, act on a digital tablet ... All these actions become more complex throughout the cycle. In order to attain the objective that is set for them or the one they set for themselves, children learn to gradually integrate the chronology of the tasks required and to order a series of actions; in large section, they are able to use an illustrated operating manual or construction sheet.

The assembling and dismantling in the framework of the construction games and the making of models, the manufacture of objects contribute to a first discovery of the technical world.

The multiple uses of instruments and objects are the occasion to observe physical phenomena, in particular by using simple optical instruments (the magnifying glasses in particular) or by acting with springs, magnets, pulleys, gears, of inclined planes. Children need to act many times to observe regularities which are the manifestations of the physical phenomena they will study much later (gravity, the attraction between two poles, the effects of light, etc.).

Throughout the cycle, children become aware of the risks associated with the use of objects, especially in the context of the prevention of domestic accidents.

Using digital tools

From an early age, children are in contact with new technologies. The role of the school is to provide them with benchmarks to understand their usefulness and to start using them in a suitable way (digital tablet, computer, digital camera ...). Targeted research, via the Internet, is carried out and commented by the teacher.

Classroom or school projects inducing relationships with other children promote distance communication experiences. The teacher discusses with the children the idea of a networked world that can allow to speak to other people sometimes very distant.

What is expected of children at the end of Maternelle

  • Recognize the main stages of the development of an animal or a plant, in a situation of observation of the real or an image.
  • Know the essential needs of some animals and plants.
  • Locate and name the different parts of the human body, on itself or on a representation.
  • Know and implement some rules of personal hygiene and a healthy life.
  • Choosing, using and knowing how to design tools and materials adapted to a situation, to specific technical actions (folding, cutting, pasting, assembling, actuating ...).
  • Build constructions; build simple models based on plans or assembly instructions.
  • Use digital objects: camera, tablet, computer.
  • Take into account the risks of the familiar familiar environment (dangerous objects and behaviors, toxic products).